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PHIL 347N Final Exam

PHIL 347N Final Exam
Question 1.
1. (TCOs 1, 2) Determine whether the following passage is an argument.
Mark is the newest member of the requisitions department. The requisitions department oversees the purchasing of all goods, services, and capital equipment for the entire company. (Points : 5)
Argument
Not an argument because there are no claims or only one claim
Not an argument because none of the claims offers a reason for the other
Not an argument because the reasons explain rather than prove the other claims
Question 2.
2. (TCOs 1, 2) Determine whether the following passage is an argument.
Either you are planning to vote in the fall election or you don’t really want to improve the politics of the local community. (Points : 5)
Argument
Not an argument because there are no claims or only one claim
Not an argument because none of the claims offers a reason for the other
Not an argument because the reasons explain rather than prove the other claims
Question 3.
3. (TCOs 2, 3) Choose the best answer.
Don’t drive over the speed limit. It’s against the law. You don’t want a speeding ticket.
Which of the following claims represents the conclusion of this argument? (Points : 5)
Driving over the speed limit is against the law.
You don’t want a speeding ticket.
You should not drive over the speed limit.
Question 4.
4. (TCOs 2, 3) Choose the best answer.
Healthy. Delicious. Drink Ovaltine!
Which of the following claims represents the implied conclusion of this argument? (Points : 5)
Ovaltine is healthy.
Ovaltine is delicious
You should drink Ovaltine.
None; this is not an argument.
Question 5.
5. (TCOs 3, 4) Identify the kind of argument.
Since all Ford Mustangs are automobiles, and not all Ford Mustangs are red, some automobiles are not red. (Points : 5)
Causal argument
Categorical argument
Inductive generalization
Analogical argument
Question 6.
6. (TCOs 3, 4) Identify the kind of argument.
Using a lemon when cooking is like using a lime. Given that limes can be added to bland foods to give them some zest, lemons, too, will give zest to bland foods. (Points : 5)
Analogical argument
Categorical argument
Truth-functional argument
Causal argument
Question 7.
7. (TCO 3, 4) Identify the kind of argument.
Learning to think critically is like learning to play the piano. Given that you have to practice a lot to be good at playing the piano, you must practice a lot to be a critical thinker. (Points : 5)
Causal argument
Truth-functional argument
Inductive generalization
Analogical argument
Question 8.
8. (TCOs 2, 3, 5) Relate to the proper terminology.
What evaluative language should you use for analogical arguments? (Points : 5)
Valid/invalid; cogent/uncogent
Valid/invalid; sound/unsound
Strong/weak; cogent/uncogent
Strong/weak; sound/unsound
Question 9.
9. (TCOs 2, 3, 5) Relate to the proper terminology.
What evaluative language should you use for truth-functional arguments? (Points : 5)
Valid/invalid; cogent/uncogent
Valid/invalid; sound/unsound
Strong/weak; cogent/uncogent
Strong/weak; sound/unsound
Question 10.
10. (TCO 4) Select the answer that represents the proper standard form for the following statement.
The bill should be paid by whoever bought the item. (Points : 5)
All people who bought the items are not people who should pay the bill.
All people who pay the bill are people who bought the item.
All people who bought the item are people who should pay the bill.
Question 11.
11. (TCO 4) Select the answer that represents the proper standard form for the following statement.
Some sports cars are red. (Points : 5)
No red things are sports cars.
Some sports cars are red things.
All sports cars are red things.
Question 12.
12. (21. (TCO 4) Select the answer that represents the proper standard form for the following statement.
If you want to be a nursing major, then you must take an anatomy class. (Points : 5)
Valid/invalid; cogent/uncogent
Valid/invalid; sound/unsound
All people who want to be nursing majors are people who must take an anatomy class.
Strong/weak; sound/unsound
Question 13.
13. (TCO 4) Choose the correct translation for each of the following compound claims.
You cannot enter the chess tournament (C) unless you are ranked (R). (Points : 5)
R • ~ C
C > R
~ C > R
~ R > ~ C
Question 14.
14. (TCO 4) Choose the correct translation for each of the following compound claims.
Small-scale agriculture will be profitable (P) and growers will get subsidies (S) only if demand (D) for local food does not decrease. (Points : 5)
~ [D > (P• S)]
(P • S) > ~ D
z D > (P • S)
P • (S > ~ D)
Question 15.
15. (TCOs 3, 5) Which inductive generalization is stronger? (Points : 5)
Our university as women’s basketball team has won its last three games. Thus, it seems obvious that the team will repeat as champions this year.
Our university as women’s basketball team has won its last six games. Thus, it seems obvious that the team will repeat as champions this year.
Question 16.
16. (TCOs 3, 5) Which analogical argument is stronger? (Points : 5)
Grease, oil, road tar, and paint thinner are all flammable. Thus, paint thinner is a refined product because grease, oil, and road tar are refined products.
Grease, oil, and paint thinner are all flammable. Thus, paint thinner is a refined product since grease and oil are refined products.
Question 17.
17. (TCOs 3, 5) Which causal argument is stronger? (Points : 5)
The population of frogs in three California counties has declined dramatically in the last decade. Loss of habitat must be the cause because increased demand for housing has eliminated more than half of the available wetlands in all three counties, and this appears to be the only factor all three have in common.
The population of frogs in three California counties has declined dramatically in the last decade. Loss of habitat must be the cause because increased demand for housing has eliminated more than half of the available wetlands in all three counties, and this appears to be the only factor all three have in common. Only one county is rural, and only two counties have experienced an increase in frog predators.
Question 18.
18. (TCO 6) Identify the fallacy.
The Chinese government should encourage freedom of speech because doing so would be a good idea. (Points : 5)
Begging the question
Appeal to ignorance
Strawman
No fallacy committed
Question 19.
19. (TCO 6) Identify the fallacy.
Has anyone ever proven that soccer players would be protected from head injuries if they wore some kind of helmet? Then it must be true that helmets are unnecessary in soccer. (Points : 5)
Ad hominem
Appeal to ignorance
Strawman
Begging the question
Question 20.
20. (TCO 6) Identify the fallacy.
Mr. Banks cancels meetings at the last minute for no reason at all. At the meetings he does not cancel, he has lately been showing up smelling of alcohol. Now he cannot account for the disappearance of over 700 dollars raised last year. Clearly, it is inappropriate to keep him on as scout leader. (Points : 5)
Appeal to ignorance
Red herring
No fallacy committed
Ad hominem


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