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Chapter 2 Theories Multiple Choice Questions

1. __________ wrote Republic.
A) Aristotle
B) Plato
C) Hans J. Morgenthau
D) Niccolo Machiavelli
2. Plato and Aristotle were from __________.
A) Great Britain
B) Italy
C) Greece
D) Egypt
3. Aristotle argued that the best political communities would be __________.
A) dominated by wealthy citizens
B) oligarchies
C) formed by elites
D) formed by citizens of the middle class
4. Which of the following best characterizes Aristotle?
A) He only explained what is.
B) He only explained what ought to be.
C) He explained both what is and what ought to be.
D) He neither explained what is nor what ought to be.
5. Which of the following would be consistent with Confucius’s vision of government?
A) Immoral behavior by rulers
B) Participation of the masses
C) Moral behavior by rulers
D) Limits on family ties
6. What shape depicted in your text might best describe healthcare reform according to a liberal?
A) A diamond
B) An upside down triangle
C) A triangle
D) A vertical rectangle
7. Which statement best reflects a descriptive statement?
A) The United States has a higher infant mortality rate than Japan.
B) The United States should do more to help the poor.
C) The United States would benefit from lower taxes.
D) The United States would benefit from building more prisons.
8. Which statement best reflects a normative description?
A) The United States has higher taxes than most European democracies.
B) The United States has lower taxes than most European democracies.
C) The United States has a federal income tax.
D) The United States has tax rates that are too low.
9. Which of the following pairs of terms are most incompatible with each other?
A) Descriptive, realism
B) Normative, realism
C) Descriptive, realism
D) Normative, zeitgeist
10. Aristotle and John Locke might agree on which point?
A) The importance of voting rights for all citizens
B) The importance of property rights
C) The importance of changing paradigms
D) The importance of the scientific method
11. What theory best explains a scenario where India develops similar political views to France, despite the fact that France was unaware of Indian political philosophies until recently?
A) Modernization Theory
B) Classical Theory
C) Rational-Choice Theory
D) Marxist Theory
12. Thomas Hobbes wrote that “the life of man [is] solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and __________.”
A) endless
B) tiring
C) short
D) depressing
13. Which of the following is most consistent with the idea of a social contract?
A) Government should be limited to ensure individual freedom.
B) Individuals join and stay in civil society.
C) Citizens prefer solitary lives to living in groups.
D) Citizens are more concerned with their own social situation than the community.
14. Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau would likely agree on which of the following?
A) Individuals join and stay in civil society
B) Life is nasty and brutish
C) Power resided with the proletariat
D) The importance of empirical research
15. Which of the following was of greatest concern to John Locke?
A) Freedom of speech for all
B) Power resided with the proletariat
C) The right to property
D) Voting rights
16. Social contracts, the state of nature, and civil society are phrases that are best associated with __________.
A) the contractualists
B) Marxists
C) behavioralism
D) systems theory
17. If __________ were alive, he might suggest that poor academic performance in schools could be attributed to a society that does not promote education and provides few resources devoted to schools.
A) John Locke
B) Jean-Jacques Rousseau
C) Thomas Hobbes
D) Machiavelli
18. Which of the following is most consistent with the concept of the “general will” according to Rousseau?
A) Creating a park for the citizens to enjoy
B) Using public dollars so that some citizens can attend private schools
C) Offering tax breaks to one auto manufacturing plant
D) Low turnout in elections
19. Karl Marx used the term __________ to refer to everything built on top of the economy.
A) the social contract
B) institutions
C) behavioralism
D) superstructure
20. __________ favor social and economic change to help the poor.
A) Conservatives
B) Leftists
C) Bourgeoisie
D) Zeitgeists
21. The “spirit of the times” would do which of the following according to Hegel?
A) Move history along
B) Lead to disillusionment
C) Prevent tyranny
D) Provide a balance to politics
22. Which of the following would most likely be supported by the bourgeoisie?
A) Equality for all
B) A revolt by the proletariat
C) Minority rights
D) Conflict for economic gain
23. According to Karl Marx, what would likely replace capitalism?
A) Communism
B) Socialism
C) Feudalism
D) Conservatism
24. Which of the following best undermines the Marxist argument?
A) Capitalist society’s frequently collapse.
B) Socialism is the natural replacement of capitalism.
C) Capitalism has survived major stock market crashes.
D) India has a democratic government.
25. Which statement best supports Marxist Theories?
A) The United States provides ample opportunities for all that work hard.
B) Similarities exist between economies in both Europe and the United States.
C) Tax breaks will often create jobs, benefiting the working class.
D) Uneven benefits to corporations with few benefits for workers, led to the economic crises in the early 2000s.
26. The term __________ might best explain why different periods throughout history have distinctive characteristics.
A) bourgeoisie
B) zeitgeist
C) paradigm
D) general will
27. Assuming that we can study society scientifically is consistent with which of the following?
A) Marxism
B) Realism
C) Positivism
D) Systems theory
28. The formal structures of government like the U.S. Congress are referred to as __________.
A) institutions
B) systems
C) paradigms
D) superstructures
29. A thesis is best described as __________.
A) a claim you are going to prove
B) a finding based on research
C) something that is not testable
D) a research design
30. Auguste Comte would most likely agree with which of the following statements?
A) The natural sciences and social sciences are nothing alike.
B) Social science methods can be applied to the natural sciences.
C) Natural science methods can be applied to the social sciences.
D) The proletariat will ultimately revolt.
31. Which of the following is a criticism of behavioralism?
A) Behavioralism is not value-free.
B) Behavioralism has never been used in the United States.
C) Natural science methods cannot be applied to the social sciences.
D) Behavioralism focuses too much on the big picture.
32. Which of the following most undermines the potential benefits of the behavioral approach?
A) Public opinion in Northern Canada
B) European democratic governments
C) Southwestern voting patterns in the United States
D) The current conflicts in the Sudan
33. Which of the following applies to the concept of New Institutionalism?
A) A synthesis of traditional behavior and other techniques in the study of politics
B) Feedback to members of Congress from their constituents that changes how they will vote
C) The president is constrained because of limitation on powers granted in Article II of the Constitution
D) Incentives that alter which candidates citizens support
34. David Easton is most associated with which of the following?
A) Behavioralism
B) Marxism
C) Systems Theory
D) Modernization Theory
35. Which of the following is a key component to systems theory?
A) Feedback
B) Modernization
C) Positivism
D) The superstructure
36. A feedback loop is most likely associated with __________.
A) Behavioralism
B) Modernization Theory
C) Rational-Choice Theory
D) Systems Theory
37. Which is a potential problem with a model?
A) Oversimplification
B) Undersimplification
C) Irrationality
D) Rationality
38. Which best exemplifies systems theory?
A) A person voting for the candidate that will best benefit that voter
B) A school district adjusting a bilingual education program to accommodate a large influx of non-native Americans.
C) Two nations creating similar programs because of industrialization
D) Using scientific methods to study society.
39. Which statement best undermines systems theory?
A) The passage of healthcare reform despite opposition from the public.
B) The passage of healthcare reform because of support from the public.
C) The passage of healthcare reform because other democracies of a certain age have done such a thing.
D) A dislike of government guaranteed healthcare in the United States.
40. Hegel is most associated with which theory?
A) Marxism
B) Modernization
C) Positivism
D) Rational-Choice
41. Seymour Martin Lipset wrote __________.
A) The Prince
B) Arthashastra
C) Social Contract
D) Political Man
42. Which of the following is a likely characteristic of a democratic nation?
A) Low levels of education
B) They are led by a dictator
C) Relatively high gross domestic product
D) Turmoil and instability
43. Gross Domestic Product is frequently used to assess __________.
A) wealth
B) health care
C) education
D) systems
44. Seymour Martin Lipset would most likely agree with which statement?
A) China will become more socialistic as it industrializes.
B) China instigates conflicts because wars benefit the ruling class.
C) As China becomes more democratic, its politics and economic situation will remain stable.
D) As China becomes more democratic, it will undergo many economic and political changes.
45. Rational-Choice Theory is most related to which of the following?
A) Behavioralism
B) Modernization Theory
C) Game Theory
D) Contractualism
46. Rational-Choice theory became popular among political scientists during what time period?
A) Prior to World War I
B) Prior to World War II
C) The 1950s
D) The 1970s
47. Game theory is most associated with __________.
A) modernization theory
B) behavioralism
C) systems theory
D) rational-choice theory
48. The statement, “Germany is relatively wealthy and its citizens are well-educated, so it must be a democracy,” is consistent with __________.
A) modernization theory
B) classical theory
C) rational-choice theory
D) Marxist theory
49. If we try to predict how South Korea will react to threats from North Korea, considering both the costs and benefits of a particular action, __________ will be most useful.
A) modernization theory
B) classical theory
C) rational-choice theory
D) Marxist theory
50. Which of the following most weakens arguments from game theorists?
A) Political actors are usually predictable.
B) President Obama could not estimate the effect of pulling troops out of Iraq.
C) Political scientists have been very accurate in collecting data.
D) Like Europe, the United States will become more socialistic over the next 100 years.

51. Realists focus on the world as it should be.
52. Political theory was limited to Europe until the 20th Century.
53. John Locke’s theories were more pessimistic than Thomas Hobbes.
54. Thomas Hobbes’s work might be useful in examining Rwandan genocides.
55. Karl Marx called the ruling class the proletariat.
56. Congress is a political institution.
57. The “political systems” model was devised by David Easton.
58. The idea that prior to reauthorization, adjustments might be made to an educational program based on demands from parents, teachers, and students is consistent with systems theory.
59. India’s democracy appears to defy expectations based on Modernization theory.
60. Rational-choice theorists argue that behavior cannot be predicted.
61. Niccolo Machiavelli’s __________ was about getting and using political __________.
62. Hobbes imagined a __________ society.
63. The concept of the __________ suggests that society’s interests might trump individual, selfish concerns.
64. The German term __________ refers to the spirit of the times.
65. Karl Marx argued that if a country went to war, it was likely to benefit the __________.
66. Formal structures of government, like the presidency or the courts, are referred to as __________.
67. A feedback loop is associated with __________ theory.
68. __________ theory would likely predict that democracy might follow a nation once it becomes wealthy.
69. A __________ is a model or way of doing research which is accepted by the discipline.
70. Rational-Choice theorists might employ __________ theory to study how political actors might behave

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