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final exam NSG 6420 study guide with answers good luck
NSG 6420 MIDTERM
COPD Stage I MILD FEV1/FVC <70% FEV1</80% *Chronic cough/sputum production *Pt unaware lung function is abnormal COPD Stage II MODERATE FEV1/FVC <70% FEV1 50-80% SOB with exertion Cough and sputum production present COPD Stage III SEVERE FEV1/FVC < 70% FEV1 30-50% Greater SOB Reduced exercise capacity Fatigue Repeated exacerbations with impact on QOL COPD Stage IV VERY SEVERE FEV1/FVC<70% FEV1<30% Resp. Failure Cor Pulmonale (elevation of JVP and pitting ankle edema) QOL very impaired Exacerbations may be life threatening How does FEV1 decrease? Inflammation Narrowing of peripheral airways Airway collapse in severe emphysema COPD diagnosis? SPIROMETRY is key Primarily Inflammatory with superimposed bronchospasm Asthma
Most common chronic respiratory disorder among all age groups Asthma Atophy exaggerated IgE mediated immune response; all atophic disorders are type I hypersensitivity disorders Type I hypersensitivity reaction Immediate hypersensitivity IgE-mediated Antigen binds to IgE that is bound to tissue mast cells and blood basophils, triggering release of preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, chemotactic factors) and synthesis of other mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, cytokines) -causes vasodilation, increased cap. permeability, mucus hypersecretion **atopic disorders (allergic asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis), anaphylaxis, some cases of angioedema, urticarial, and latex and some food allergies **Develop <1h after exposure to antigen Allergic triad of symptoms allergies, eczema, and asthma Samter's Triad Nasal polyps, asthma, and ASA allergy Most common symptom of asthma wheezing Common only symptom of asthma? Cough -can often delay dx of asthma AKA cough variant asthma Best way to confirm asthma dx? bronchial provocation Intermittent asthma sx </2days/week PM awakenings </2/month SABA use </2 days/week No interference with norm. activity 0-1 exacerbations requiring oral steroids / yr Tx for intermittent asthma step 1
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