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This is a study note containing subjects from Biology Longman including Skeletons, Muscles, Movement, Joints, Bones. It's a quick summary and great for revision and quick studies.
Skeleton gives complete support and protection. Animals without backbones are invertebrates, they have outer or known as external skeleton (exoskeleton), animals with backbones are vertebrates, they have internal skeletons (endoskeleton).
= vulnerable to
animals because of no protections.
The skeleton is also known as a bicycle framework.
o They’re like tubes to transport forces efficiently o Both strong & light for easy movement o Made up or many parts
collagen fibres in the middle
tissue & non- (hard) calcium which contain
Lack of calcium
soft & deformed bone (rickets)
If adult bones lack calcium brittle bones When bones are repaired
Bone cells + collagen fibers
Release calcium phosphate By Exercising:
More calcium phosphate + to stressful parts of the bone
Bones have four main functions:
Support, stand upright Protection, skull protects brain Movement, by muscles Blood cells, in bone marrow
Fixed Joint: No movement (Skull)
Hinge Joint: Moves in one direction (Knee)
Ball & Socket Joint: Swivels in any direction (Shoulders & Hips)
Joints are when two bones meet. Skull + Joints = Protects Brain Fetus No Skull
When a baby’s born, there’s a hole in the skull (fontanelle) as known as the soft spot, which allows the brain growth. When Joints allow movement it makes the bones slide past each other. The surface of bones at joint are wrapped around cartilage as known as the shock absorber. Tough/smooth substance Joints are lubricated by synovial fluid (liquid). The joint is wrapped around the ligament. Flexible, elastic material holding joint bones As people grow older the lubricating fluid gets dried because of the worn-out cartilage. This also causes diseases like arteritis and rheumatism.
Movement of joint is controlled by muscles. The muscle contracts and gets shorter.
Muscles are the tissues making up parts of the body attached to bones by non-flexible cards as known as tendons. Muscle can relax and stop pulling, but can’t push bones to get the joint back to its original position. Muscles work together known as the antagonistic pair. Subject: Biology Date: September 8th, 2019 Website: flashnotes.com Made by: Tina Mahnam
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