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SPCE 680 Final Exam Questions & Answers (2019/2020) complete solutions

SPCE 680 Final Exam Questions & Answers
Chapter 9
Sean has an ASD. He has a difficult time changing his routine, which often causes problems for his father, who has a variable work schedule. Sometimes Sean will throw tantrums, and his father often responds by raising his voice or slamming things around the house. Which dimension of expressed emotion is this family showing?
The most widely accepted mean prevalence rate of ASD as determined by the well-diagnosed CDC study that examined eight-year olds over 14 sites is:
Which of the following statements is true about ADHD?
Jack has trouble sitting still at school. He often fidgets and squirms when he must stay seated for longer periods of time. Jack has trouble waiting his turn to answer questions, often blurting out the answers before the teacher has even finished speaking. What is Jack likely struggling with?
Each of the following is a dimension of expressed emotion in family interaction that might lead to deterioration in ASD EXCEPT:
Which of the following statements is NOT true about ASD?
The problem with estimating prevalence rates of Asperger syndrome is:
Brian has an ASD, and he has a difficult time understanding other people’s perspectives. What of the following might help him develop better theory of mild skills?
Which of the following is NOT a feature of ADHD inattentiveness at all ages?
Children with early onset epilepsy have an increased risk of:

CHAPTER 3

The validity of CARS ratings made by other professionals was examined. What was the result?
According to BRaken what is acceptable level of text reliability

The ADOS has many similarities to the diagnostic criteria in the DSM-IV. What does the ADOS lack in terms of DSM-IV diagnosis?
Which ASD rating scale has the smallest comparison group?

Why do we describe a persons score as falling within range of values?
What form of evaluation is used in the Autism Rating Scale?
Which of the following is not true about validity?

Test authors have the responsibility to inform users about which of the following
The Social Responsiveness Scale can identify all of the following disorders except:

Which assessment tool had a national standardizatrion sample of children in the US and Cananda?


CHAPTER 11

Occurrences of ASD- and ADHD-like traits have been associated with which chromosomal situation?




A prevalence rate of gastrointestinal symptoms in ASD derived from a sample of children presenting to a gastroenterology clinic may be problematic due to:






Intra-uterine exposure to which drug contributes to increased risk of ADHD?



Reduced empathizing in men with ASD due to testosterone levels in utero is a crucial step in the extreme male brain theory. What is an alternative explanation for reduced empathy in men?






What is the most common cause of androgen insensitivity syndrome?






Intra-uterine growth restriction is associated with which of the following risks?


Reduced nonverbal working memory, learning disability and ASD, and ADHD


Reduced verbal working memory, intellectual disability and ASD, and ADHD


Which of these prenatal factors is associated with development of ASD?








Joey has an ASD. Which of the following is true about his immediate family?






All of the following are possible explanations for the pattern of ASD symptoms seen in Russian and Romanian orphanages EXCEPT:





Emily’s 3-year-old daughter was recently diagnosed with an ASD. Emily is convinced her daughter was developing normally until she received an MMR vaccination. What may be influencing Emily’s perception?



CHAPTER 12

Which of the following is considered a secondary disability of A




Mothers’ of children with an ASD are at an increased risk of developing ______________ as a result of lack of support from their partner, additional challenging behaviors from the child, and worrying about their own mothering ability.


Anxiety


Depression


High blood pressure



Sandy was diagnosed with autistic disorder when she was two years old. What does this tell you about her attachment style?


She is most likely to have a disorganized attachment style because children with an ASD have a higher rate of disorganized attachment





Which of the following is a characteristic of hyperlexia?


Pressure to read even when other tasks are more urgent


Reduced comprehension for the age


Ability to read at an early age



Brad has an extra X chromosome. He falls within the normal range in intellectual functioning; however he has difficulty reading and deficits in social interaction. What condition does Brad have?


Klinefelter syndrome


Fragile X syndrome


Smith-Magenis syndrome


Down syndrome

Why might parents not notice that early warning signs of ASD?



Social, language, truncal coordination, and eye-hand coordination are all areas of development that are checked in the first year of life. Although all four areas can be affected by ASD which one is seen as the most significant fundamental delay?


Eye-hand coordination


Social


Language


Truncal coordination

Which of the following should be the goal of psychological interventions used for treatment?


Increasing intellectual functioning


Decreasing problematic and repetitive behavior




Increasing the child’s social interaction and eye contact


Roger is an adult with a slightly lower than normal IQ, but has more severe deficits in his performance IQ. His palate is underdeveloped causing issues with his speech. He also experiences psychosis. Which condition does Roger have?


Phelan-McDermid syndrome


Williams-van Beuren syndrome


Velocardiofacil syndrome


Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome


Behavioral interventions generally include reinforcing and shaping behavior that adults think are appropriate. More recent studies are finding which of the following are beneficial in increasing social attention and interactions?


Imitating the child and modeling language at their level


Repeating a routine or simply repeating


Following the child’s lead


All of the above

CHAPTER 16

What is the main impairment in atypical autism?
Face reading an any other task involving the interpretation of other peoples facial expressions (pg 401)

Which of the following are characteristics of executive syndrome?


Decreased risk of anxiety


Trouble shifting attention away and the back again


Impairment in nonverbal expression


Rigid or stereotyped behaviors


The phenotype of _________ syndrome corresponds closely to that of atypical Asperger syndrome.


Klinefelter


Turner


XYY


Triple X

Janet has atypical Asperger syndrome. When she goes to the grocery store, Janet makes a list, even if she is only picking up a few items. If Janet does not make a physical list and has to work from her own memory, she finds that she spends an inordinate amount of time going from one side of the store to the other, because she has difficulty reordering her memorized list after acquiring an item. Which of Janet’s abilities might be impaired?


Attention shifting
Working memory
Cognitive persistence
All of the above

ADHD is associated with a substantially increased risk of rage in children, likely for which of the following reasons?





A minority of people with an ASD present forensic problems. In those who do present a problem, however, offending is more likely to be against __________ than __________, and more likely to involve __________ than __________.




Peter is a 30-year-old man with atypical Asperger syndrome. He works on a ship dock unloading incoming shipments.His supervisor, a neurotypical man, assigns the shifts and directs each employee to the trucks they are to unload. Peter feels he is often treated unfairly by his supervisor, and feels he is given the worst shifts to work and the fullest trucks to unload. After weeks of feeling he was being treated unfairly, Peter saw his coworker in the parking lot and attacked him. What is the most likely reason that Peter attacked a neurotypical coworker instead of his supervisor?




What affect does ASD have on sexual identity?


People with an ASD are more likely to be heterosexual than neurotypicals.


People with an ASD are more likely to be homosexual than neurotypicals.


People with an ASD are more likely to be bisexual than neurotypicals.





People with atypical Asperger syndrome, like other people with ADHD, are drawn to substance misuse. Which substance is most often misused by these individuals?





The theory that people have a ‘cache’ or store of social knowledge that is drawn on in determining a course of action in social situations primarily implicates which brain region?


Periventricular nucleus


Dentate gyrus


Cingulate cortex


Prefrontal cortex





CHAPTER 1

Which of the following functions that is affected in ASD is attributed to dysfunction in the right hemisphere?

Speech deficits

Gestalt face processing

Gaze following


How is Brodmann’s cytoarchitectonic map constructed?




The dorsolateral PFC is responsible for all of the following except:



A study with macaques showed that lesions in the medial temporal lobe caused impairments in ___________ and __________ which the authors thought was similar to the behaviors shown in children with autism.



The frontal cortex is involved in gaze control and imitation, particularly of facial expressions. This suggests which kind of neurons are housed here?

atypical

Mirror

Pyramidal

Spindle


The ________ are the grooves that visible on the brain and the _______ ridges.


Gyri; sulci

Sulci; gyri

Sulc; lobule

Lobule; gyri

The dominate hemisphere is the hemisphere that contains the _________ center of the brain and is the ________ hemisphere.

Somatosensory; right

Motor; left

Speech; left

Memory; right

What part of the prefrontal cortex is the main processing area for taste and olfaction?


Dorsolateral


Ventromedial


Orbitofrontal


_____ percent of people with ASD also meet the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.


40


70


_____________ area is essential for speech production while ______________ area is required for semantic processing and comprehension.


CHAPTER 3

Absence or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum leads to all of the following clinical features except:

Loss of muscle one

Speech delay

Social inhibition

Learning difficulty


The __________ is the middle of a chromosome and the ________ is the end.

Centromere; telomere

Telomere; glutomere

Telomere; Centromere

Centromere; glutomere


CNVs are being implicated in which of the following disorders?

Schizophrenia

Intellectual disability

ASD

All of the above

Which of the following serves as a means of reducing genetic dose, competition between alleles, and alter the structure and function of organs or parts of organs?

Expression
Inactivation
Imprinting
All of the above





Which of the following is the cause of recombination and is the time when damaging variation occurs?

Meiosis
Mitosis
Genesis
epistasis



The _______________ network is active when a task is being focused on while the ______________ network is active when carrying out a task.

External attention; default

Internal attention; default

Default; external attention

Default; internal attention


Ova and sperm are haploid. What does this mean?

They contain two copies of each chromosome

They contain an X and Y chromosome

They contain one copy of each autosome

All of the above


Which of the following is true about epistasis?

It can be caused by the Huntingting gene

Epistasis is when a gene influences another gene via its gene product

Epistasis is when a gene’s mutation is duplicated and then causes a secondary mutation

a and b



Which of the following subsystems is not part of the default network?


Inferior temporal cortex 86

Posterior cingulate

Medial prefrontal cortex

Bilateral inferior parietal cortex


If only one allele is affected by a mutation or disorder, only half of the person’s children are likely to get the allele while the other half remains unaffected. What principle is this following?


William’s principle

Mendelian principle

Copy Numbers Variation principle

Huntington Principle

CHAPTER 4
Why might placation be a difficult strategy for people with an ASD to employ when dealing with neurotypicals?

Placation is mediated by oxytocin and vasopressin, which both malfunction in people with an ASD

Placation requires a high level of empathy 100

Placation requires a high level of verbal dexterity

Placation should not be any more difficult for people with an ASD than people without an ASD


____________ are more alert to facial expressions of anger than those of other emotions.


People with an ASD

People with ADHD

People that are neurotypical

All people, including people with an ASD 96


____________ loneliness refers to the feeling of a lack of attachment, of not mattering to another person as an individual; ____________ loneliness refers to the feeling of being out of the social circle, having no social role, place or influence.

Social; emotional

Trait; state

State; trait

Emotional; social

Which personal factors are correlated with better outcomes for those with ASD?

self-control, friendliness, absence of hostility b.Adaptability, friendliness, surgency 93

Curiosity, agreeableness, self-control


How many young people with ASD report being bullied at school?


Most young people with ASD do not report being bullied at school

A significant minority of young people report being bullied at school

Most young people with ASD report being bullied at school

Almost all young people with ASD report being bullied at school 103


__________ is associated with shame- and anxiety-proneness leading to the avoidance of situations that may provoke social comparisons, social withdrawal, and difficulty in making emotional commitments.


Asperger syndrome

Schizophrenia

Schizoid personality disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder

Meredith has worked for the company and the same boss for 20 years.Her boss frequently makes rude and offensive comments that make Meredith angry. On the several occasions where Meredith approached her boss about these comments, her boss ignored her and told her to resume her work. Meredith persistent anger puts her at increased risk of:

Diabetes
Coronary artery disease
ADHD
ASD

____________ tend to manage conflict using violence, while ____________ tend manage conflict using placation.

Chimpanzees, bonobos 99


Bonobos, gorillas



The idea that there are a higher number of heterozygotes for ASD genes in the population to counteract the reproductive disadvantage of a person who is homozygous for these genes is called:


Natural selection
Negative selection
Balanced selection91
Directional selection

Which of these is a normalization technique?

Adult fostering schemes to provide family life for adults with learning difficulties

Buddy and befriending scheme

Mainstreaming young people in to mainstream schools and colleges

All of the above

CHAPTER 5

Children with ASD who viewed action scenes did not show activity over the presumed mirror neuron areas. This suggested that what process was offline?



Motor matching116

Communication disorders (which include speech, language, and hearing disorders) affect what percent of Americans?


1%

4%

10%

15%

What is a phonological disorder?

It is essentially an acoustic version dyslexia

It is associated with impaired production of all phonemes leading to speech that is difficult to understand

It results from dysfunction in movement planning

All of the above


Who developed the theory that is now the basis for the linguistic and structuralism for psychology?

Charles Pierce
Ferdinand de Saurssure118
Aristotle
Indiana Brahmanics


The behavioral approach to the DSM-IV definition is considered outmoded mainly because it fails to capture what component of communication?


That it is an exchange117

That it is an internal process

That communication involves verbal and nonverbal components

All of the above


What factors contribute to delayed social development?

Imitation deficits

Impaired joint attention

Both imitation deficits and impaired joint attention

Deficits in chunking


Shannon proposed that 50% of spoken utterances are redundancies. What purpose do these redundancies in language serve?

They allow a person to check for errors using duplicated information

It provides a feedback loop so the person can monitor what they are saying

The message is expressed through multiple channels which allows for the comparison between channels to check for errors

a and c

In cases of selective mutism in what setting is the child most often mute?

Home

School132

Public placee

All of the above


What is the failure to understand writing due to problems in translating letters into sounds and vice versa called?


Dysgraphia

Dysphasia

Dyslexia124

Dyspraxia


In regards to eye orientation, humans are unique in what way in comparison to other non-human primates?

They always find mutual eye gaze as threatening under all circumstances

They are able to learn to find mutual gaze rewarding under particular circumstances110

They are able to learn to find mutual gaze threatening under particular circumstances

They always find mutual eye gaze to elicit positive emotions under all circumstances


CH 5
During middle and high school what is not the primary question assessment is trying to answer?

What does he or she need now in the way of instruction or supports?

Does the diagnosis still correctly describe the child? 120

What services and supports will be needed in the future?

What services is he or she eligible for?

Which of the following behaviors in infants is not strongly associated with a later diagnosis of ASD?

Unusual visual attention patterns

Increased irritability

Increased responding to name

Decreased joint attention behaviors


Which of the following is false in relation to children with ASD after the age of two?


Verbal IQ scores tend to remain stable or increase

Behavioral symptoms become more intense throughout childhood, but then drop off in adulthood

Behavioral symptoms decrease throughout childhood, adolescence, and adulthood

Group means may mask individuals differences because some people make marked progress while others’ cognitive scores decline

As part of the initial diagnostic assessment you should provide recommendations which include of the following except?

Offer suggestions for handling pressing behavioral concerns

Suggest good books and websites about ASD

Explain the different theories of intervention to the parents in detail

Provide contact information for early intervention systems
In the United States a child’s first assessment for an ASD often takes place before when?

One year of age

Preschool

Elementary school118

Six months of age

Which of the following is considered the “gold standard” of parent report measures for diagnosis beginning at a developmental age of two?

The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders

The Parent interview for Autism

Autism Diagnostic Interview – Revised125

Childhood Autism Rating Scale


At what age is a diagnosis of ASD found to be very stable?

12 months

18 months

2 years

3 years126

Which of the following skills tend to not development to the same extent as IQ and language skills?

Academic skills

Vocational skills

Daily living skills

All of the above



Which of the following is the down side to using the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule?

It is expensive to purchase

It is time consuming to learn, administer, and score

It over identifies children with significant mental retardation in early childhood as having ASD

All of the above

Screening for ASD or other developmental concerns in groups of children for whom developmental concerns have already been raised is considered a _______________.


Level 2 screening123


CHAPTER 7


Movement disorders of cerebellar origin are called what?


Ataxia169

Clumsiness

Dyskinesia

Dyspraxia


What is the relationship between clumsiness and intelligence?


They are positively correlated

There is no relationship

They are negatively correlated169

There is an interaction between the two


Bernard has an ASD and hypermnesis. How do his parents describe his memory ability?


He has the ability to recall every fact he ever heard about airplanes in great detail

He is unable to remember things that happened yesterday, but can remember things from years ago

He seems unable to learn new facts

He has an ability to recall in great detail facts he has learned and biographical information

Sally has an ASD. What executive function is most likely to be impaired?

Inhibition of pre-potent responses

Problem solving

Working memory

Shifting attention between tasks

Hughlings Jackson suggested that ASD was a consequence of which of the following?


A chemical imbalance in the brain

A focal lesion

Instability in networks linking brain centers152

Disconnect of the corpus callosum

Which of the following does load refer to when examining neurological network dysfunction?


Concurrent cognitive processing

Fatigue

Interpersonal demand

All of the above

What range of IQ scores is considered borderline intellectual functioning?


75-85

70-80 154

50-69

65-75

Sara is presented with a series of novel tasks that required problem solving. Sara is able to come up with new solutions to the problems. What type of intelligence is being measured?


Fluid

Crystallized

General

Visual-spatial reasoning

Which of the following is not a fundamental capacity of executive functioning according to Friedman?

Inhibition of pre-potent responses

Problem solving161

Working memory

Shifting attention between tasks

Which of the following is true about consolidation?

Consolidation occurs during slow wave sleep

Unconsolidated memories cannot be recalled

Consolidation involves emotionally working through the memory that occurs during REM sleep

All of the above


CHAPTER 12

Which of the following is not a data collection tool used when conducting an analogue functional analysis?

Parent interview

Teacher interview

Preference assessment

Classroom functional analysis

What do studies stress the importance of capitalizing on in order to aid in the interpretation of functional analysis data?


Indirect data collection procedures


Classroom data derived from test scores


Descriptive analyses and observations


a and c


In the study conducted to assess diagnostic assessment practices in schools, what was the most widely used developmental tool?


Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales


Learning Accomplishment Profile


The Behavioral Assessment System for Children – 2


The Mullen Scales of Early Learning





How does descriptive assessment assist in the process of functional analysis?


Assisted in developing clear definitions of challenging behavior


Identified likely antecedent and consequence event


Identified important natural environmental relationships


All of the above

Who is the gap between empirically based knowledge and broadly disseminated implementation costly to?


Children


Schools


the community


all of the above341

In the study conducted to assess diagnostic assessment practices in schools the authors reported which was most utilized?


The Autism Diagnostic Interview


The Childhood Autism Rating Scale


The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule


Most schools used more than one assessment tool


Schools are under a high degree of scrutiny because they are held accountable to all of the following except?


Tax payers


Students and parents


National Association of School Psychologists339


State and national legislators


The assessment of ASD in the schools requires school psychologists to do what?


Know the technical nuances of each specific assessment procedure


Possess a sophisticated understanding of the way school systems operate


Understand the need to offer empirically supported assessments and instructional methods to demonstrate accountability for educational outcomes


All of the above

In reflection on the school as a system, Ringeisen et al. adopted a three-level model of how schools operate. What are the three levels?


Individual, organization, and state/national


Child, teacher, school board


School, district, state


Individual, school corporation, state

Accomplishing the goal of introducing and successfully using new methods requires which of the following?


Effort on the part of researchers, teachers, and school psychologists


Support from the school board and government


Support from individuals in the position to set goals for the school


All of the above


CHAPTER10


Which of the following is a complication in assessment of comorbidities in ASD?


Symptoms of another condition may look different in the context of ASD


Symptom expression may be influenced by lowered cognitive capacity


ASD involves differences in socioemotional expression that will affect social responsiveness during assessment and overall clinical impressions


All of the above

Which assessment is considered the “gold standard” in evaluating psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescents?


The Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition


The Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment


The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version 305


The Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form

Which of the following is not a symptom of depression when comorbid with ASD?

Decrease in adaptive functioning


Loss of interest in a special topic


Decrease in social behavior296


Increase in maladaptive behavior


Two large studies found that over what percent of individuals with ASD were above diagnostic threshold for another emotional or behavioral disorder?


30%


55%


70%


85%



Which of the following is true in regards to the prevalence of depression?


The rate of depression is higher in the general population than individuals with ASD


The rate of depression is higher in high-functioning individuals with ASD than in the general population (pg. 295)


The rate of depression is the same for the general population and individuals with ASD


None of the above


Which of the following assessments has a version specifically designed for use with children on the autism spectrum?


The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children – Present and Lifetime Version306










Which of the following is not one of the symptoms used to differentiate tic disorder from ASD stereotypical behavior?


Stereotyped movements are less variable over time and less influenced by psychosocial factors


Individuals with tic disorder have motor and vocal tics whereas individuals with ASD have just one of the two302


ASD motor mannerisms tend to involve the hands, fingers, and whole body where tics typically involve the face, neck, arms, and shoulders


Individuals with tics may seem distressed by the behaviors, whereas individuals with autistic sterotypies are not

Which of the following anxiety disorders is the most difficult to differentiate from ASD?

Specific phobia


Separation anxiety


Generalized anxiety disorder


Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Which of the following is true in regards to anxiety in individuals with ASD?

Symptoms are reported at a higher rate in preschool-aged children with ASD than in the general population

Children with PDD-NOS and Asperger’s show a lower rate of anxiety symptoms than children with autistic disorder

Anxiety seems to increase with age in ASD

All of the above


Which of the following is not identified as a problem in using self-report to identify comorbid disorders in children with ASD?


Limitation in insight and mentalizing


Individuals with ASD tend to attribute their emotional states to other people and not internalize them292


Individuals with ASD tend to focus on physical, concrete characteristics


Impairments in recognizing and describing their emotional and mental states

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