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FSHD 117 Exam 2 Study Guide...............
lOMoAR cPSD| 3013804
FSHD 117 Exam 2 Study Guide
Lifespan Human Development (University of Arizona)
lOMoAR cPSD| 3013804
FSHD 117 – Study Guide #2
Perception Across the Life Span – Day 10
· Understand the difference between sensation and perception
– Stimulus input through our sensory (nervous) system. – Sensation is felt/smelled/seen etc. but not given a name (observation)
– Our interpretation of what we sense.
· What is habituation and dis-habituation; be able to identify and apply
– The tendency of individuals to attenuate (get used to) a stimulus. – When we habituate we start to ignore a stimulus.
– Car alarms
– Renewed interest in a previously boring stimulus. – No longer exposed and then re-introduced-weird feeling
· Know the two types of testing infant perceptual abilities (preferential looking, evoked potentials etc.); be able to apply.
• Preferential Looking
– The tendency of infants or individuals to prefer the appearance of one object over
– What they look at the longest/most appealing
• Evoked Potentials
– Use of physiological measures to test infant responses to stimuli. – Hook up eeg and devices to head to see dif brain activities in all 5 dif senses – EX: Which smell sparks greatest brain activity
· Know the visual preferences in younger children and pattern perceptions. VISUAL PREFERENCES
• He found that infants preferred to look at patterns rather than at color or brightness. • Prefer human faces real rather than drawn faces
• Fantz also found that 2-day-old infants look longer at patterned stimuli than a
• Infants prefer patterns to dull stimuli:
– Light-dark transitions – Contours demark boundaries – The human face – Attractive faces (symmetrical) to faces that are not symmetrical
· Understand what depth perception, size constancy, cross modal perception, dimensional perception; be able to identify and apply.
• As early as crawling age- develop depth perception
– The ability to recognize that an objects size does not change as a function of
– Indicates infant ability to perceive depth and distance.
CROSS MODEL PERCEPTION
• The ability to relate and integrate information about two or more sensory
modalities, such as vision and hearing.
• Food does not taste as good when you are sick
lOMoAR cPSD| 3013804
· Understand what the “visual cliff” experiment is (video provided in class); understand what it is measuring/testing.
• Gibson and Walk conducted the classic “visual cliff” experiment in 1960 to assess how
early infants could perceive depth.
Know the main deficits among older adults in relation to sensation and perception (know
table 6.2 on page 197, 7th edition blue book).
• It seems that it is important to stimulate our sensory receptors early in life. • If not leads to deficit in ability to perceive info • As we age: • Our pupil shrinks, letting less light through. • slows our ability to adapt to low light • Our lens becomes stiffer. • limiting our ability to focus especially on close stimuli (presbyopia) • Macular degeneration increases • blurs vision as we age
Perception and Cognition Across the Life Span – Day 11 · Understand the difference between cognition and meta-cognition are; be able to apply.
• Our cognitive abilities are our ability to think.
– This can mean solving problems or self-reflection.
• Meta-cognition is our ability to think about thinking.
· Know Piaget’s Keys (organization, adaptation, assimilation etc.); be able to identify examples.
• - we systematically organize new info to fit our emerging schemas (scripts or plans for
how we think things work
– Adjusting to the demands of the environment/situation
– Incorporating new info into their existing knowledge – Slide into existing knowledge
– Adapting one’s existing knowledge to new info. – If we have to change schema
· Be able to apply and understand Piaget’s 4 stages (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations.); at what ages do these stages most commonly occur; describe each one, and be able to understand their key terms and tasks of each stage (e.g., object permanence, hypothetical deductive reasoning, lack of conservation, egocentrism, etc.).
• During the Sensorimotor stage: (birth-2)
– Object permanence- children develop midway though this stage/understanding
a object exists even if I cannot see it- need to master this before moving on.
– A not B error- look for something in the last place they saw even if its moved
somewhere else and they know its not there
– Emergence of the use of symbols.
• We use language and other symbols to represent the physical reality
of the world.
• During the Preoperational stage: (2-7)
– Lack of conservation- kids lack ability to conserve number or mass- changing
size doesn’t change amount
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