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MCB404 Exam 2 Study Guide.......
lOMoAR cPSD| 3013804
MCB404 Exam 2 Study Guide
Bioethics And Law (University of Arizona)
lOMoAR cPSD| 3013804
Study guide for the “5 Steps Approach” and “The Robot Love”
1. In your own words, explain the meaning of ethics and morality. Then, explain the
difference between these two terms.
Ethics: philosophical reflection of the norms and practices of social morality. Rules provided by an external source.
Morality: traditions or beliefs of what human conduct is right and wrong human conduct. A Social Institution. Individual’s Idea.
2. Why do we need to reflect on morality?
When we make a decision, we need to think about whether or not we are violating
someone else’s rights. Certain actions should or should not be performed due to their
outcomes. Society expects us to take into account other people’s interest.
3. Explain what common and particular morality is and how it is determined.
Common Morality: GENERAL, UNIVERSAL set of norms shared by all people who are committed to morality in a given society. All people judged by that standard. Determined by culture, religion, philosophical sources.
Particular Morality: Present CONCRETE, NON-UNIVERSAL, and content rich norms. Ex.) lawyer code prevents lawyer from turning in client because of confidentiality.
4. Understand and explain, in your own words, what the four approaches to study ethics are.
The Non-normative Approach: does not take any moral position on the issue under study, based strictly on facts. Studies why it is considered immoral, does not judge.
1. Descriptive Ethics: Factual description and explanations. Historians,
2. Metaethics: analysis of the meaning of central ethical terms. Terms: rights,
The Normative approach: Makes an ethical decision on the issue.
3. General Normative approach: what basic principles govern moral
behavior. Help develop policies.
4. Practical Normative Approach: how we apply rules of normative ethics
lOMoAR cPSD| 3013804
5. What is a moral dilemma?
There are two or more compelling but mutually exclusive alternatives to solve an ethical issue. Both positions have positive and negative outcomes.
6. List and explain each of the steps of the “Five Step Approach” that could be used
to resolve an ethical dilemma.
a) OBTAIN OBJECTIVE INFORMATION:
i) Obtain facts, facilitate negotiations
b) PROVIDE DEFINITIONAL CLARITY TO THE ISSUE:
i) Define concepts. Sometimes people have different definitions of words.
c) ADOPT A CODE
i) Common set of guidelines i.e.) organization code of ethics. Not universal.
d) USE EXAMPLES AND COUNTER-EXAMPLES
i) Use favorable cases and counterexamples, helps us to clarify positions
e) ANALYZE ARGUMENTS
i) Analyze of opposing position and find fallacies, forcing them to change
7. This week contains two papers and several videos that deals with the ethics of relationships
between humans and robots. You must read those two papers and get familiar with their arguments. In the second exam, you will be asked to use the Five Step Approach to analyze and solve an ethical issue that involves robot love with humans.
8. In the powerpoint titled “Why to be Moral” explain why a person may decide to do
something that is morally correct and how this could be the reason for why people have moral behavior.
You do not want others to do the same thing to you. You can accomplish more by cooperating with other selfish humans. If you do not obey the social contract you will be punished by the other members of the group.
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