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Final Exam Concept Review Pathophysiology Gastrointestinal Chapter 17 Hiatal Hernia: causes, Signs and Symptoms • Patho: protrusion or herniation of the upper stomach through the diaphragm • Causes: short esophagus, trauma, weak muscles, increased abdominal pressure • Signs/symptoms: heartburn or pyrosis, frequent belching, increased discomfort when lying down, substernal pain that may radiate to shoulder and jaw Gastritis: Acute vs. Chronic, Signs and Symptoms • Acute: caused by injury to mucosal lining by microorganisms (e-coli), allergies, alcohol, aspirin, corrosive substances, radiation or chemo, increase risk of cancer • Chronic: H-pylori, NSAIDS, alcohol, tobacco • S/S: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, hematemesis (vomiting of blood), abdominal pain Peptic Ulcer Disease: Cause, Signs and Symptoms, location • Duodunal pectic ulcer is the most common due to high acid and inflammation from bacteria • Gastric peptic ulcer • Location: duodenum (#1 place), lower esophagus, stomach • Causes: H.Pylori, NSAIDS, Zollinger Ellison Syndrome, stress, smoking • S/S: pain (specific for each type of ulcer), nausea, vomiting, weight loss Cholelithiasis: gallstone formation, which are masses of solid material or calculi that form

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