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FOUNDATIONS ON NURSING RESEARCH
1. Quantitative research can be described as
a. objective and formal
b. subjective and formal
c. objective and informal
d. subjective and informal
2. A quantitative research study
a. must have ratio level data
b. must have at least interval level data
c. uses participant observation
d. uses standardized measures
3. The blueprint for quantitative studies is termed
a. research design
b. research goal
c. research objective
d. research process
4. Methods to collect data in a descriptive quantitative study could include all but
a. administering a questionnaire to participants
b. analyzing an existing data set
c. manipulating the independent variable for positive reinforcement of desired behaviors
d. observing participants responses to an intervention
5. Correlation research may be used to
a. describe observations of nurse bedside reporting techniques
b. examine the association between patient handoff and patient satisfaction
c. participate in a cultural experience to understand the participant’s pain reactions
d. review medical records to obtain historical data
6. The results of correlation research
a. implies that one variable causes a change in another
b. implies that one variable does not cause a change in another
c. implies there may be a relationship between the two variables where one may influence the outcome of the other
d. implies there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the two dependent variables
7. Home care nurses are observed as they provide skin care to individuals with hospital acquired pressure ulcers. On average, the nurses spend at least ten minutes more providing this care than they normally do. This is an example of what concept relevant to quantitative research?
c. Hawthorne effect
d. Placebo effect
8. How is a sample different from a population?
a. A sample is larger than a population.
b. A population is larger than a sample.
c. A population is part of a sample
d. There is no difference, the terms mean the same thing in research
9. A researcher is studying the relationship between fatigue and stress among staff nurses in an acute care setting. 100 nurses were recruited and completed a self-administered questionnaire. This can add bias to the study because
a. This requires someone to read the questions to the participant to be sure they are interpreted accurately.
b. The researcher isn’t completely sure who completed the questionnaire.
c. The questionnaire may not be completed within the required time frame.
d. The questionnaire must be completed in the presence of the researcher.
10. When selecting a questionnaire to be used as a research instrument, the researcher must be sure the instrument is ____________.
a. Credible and trustworthy
b. Credible and valid
c. Reliable and valid
d. Reliable and trustworthy
11. A causal relationship is said to exist
a. When the dependent variable changes as the independent variable is manipulated.
b. When the independent variable changes as the dependent variable is manipulated.
c. There is no change when either of the variables are manipulated.
d. Both variables change when the independent variable is manipulated.
12. A researcher wants to know whether nursing fatigue is one cause of poor patient satisfaction scores. The independent variable is
a. Nursing fatigue
b. Patient satisfaction scores
c. Both nursing fatigue and patient satisfaction scores
d. Number of hours worked by the nurse during the week previous to measuring patient satisfaction scores.
13. A sampling technique used in experimental design includes
d. Voluntary selection
14. Causality is tested through which of the following?
a. Grounded theory
b. Experimental research
c. All quantitative research
d. Descriptive research
15. Why does subject attrition affect internal validity?
a. A study in which the majority of the subjects die calls into question whether the treatment itself is safe
b. Subjects who drop out may differ from those who stay in the study, in terms of an important extraneous variable.
c. Type I error is almost guaranteed with very unequal sample sizes.
d. Subject mortality may result in a sample that is so much smaller than anticipated that type II error may result.
16. A questionnaire used in a study is said to be reliable if the results obtained are
17. Match the description of the research with the type of design
The Life Impact Rating Scale was administered to college freshmen
The relationship between the lack of sleep and medication errors were analyzed
It was determined low potassium levels in a cardiac patient caused the tachycardia
Students completed an inventory identifying coping mechanisms, attended a two day course on how to succeed in college, and then completed the same inventory two months later to determine if the workshop was effective
C. Cause and effect
D. Pre-test - post-test
18. In research, rigor involves adhering to the study design, paying strict attention to detail, and being sure all data collected is accurate.
19. The plan for data analysis can be developed once the data collection is complete.
20. A mixed methods research design means two types of quantitative studies are used to collect and analyze the data.
21. In quantitative experimental research, the independent variable is manipulated to determine the effects on the dependent variable.
22. A research may choose to conduct a pilot study before the main study is conducted in order to determine if the data collection tool will measure the dependent variable accurately.
23. A random table of numbers may be used to select participants for an experimental study.
24. The pre-test post design is used in correlation research to show there is a relationship between the pre and post interventions.
25. The researcher must select an appropriate design for a study in order to eliminate error and make critique of the findings possible.
26. The difference between probability sampling and non-probability sampling is the chance of a participant being selected to participate in the study.
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