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Modeling is a method used in certain cognitive-behavioral techniques of psychotherapy whereby the client learns by imitation alone, without any specific verbal direction by the therapist
PSY 4 E 03: THERAPEUTIC
INTERVENTION STRATEGIES - II
UNIT–I: Behaviouristic Perspective
TOPIC: MODELING TECHNIQUES AND
MODELING TECHNIQUES AND CLINICAL
Modeling is a method used in certain cognitive-behavioral techniques of psychotherapy whereby the client learns by imitation alone, without any specific verbal direction by the therapist,
Definition Modeling, which is also called observational learning or imitation, is a behaviorally based procedure that involves the use of live or symbolic models to demonstrate a particular behavior, thought, or attitude that a client may want to acquire or change. Modeling is sometimes called vicarious learning, because the client need not actually perform the behavior in order to learn it.
Modeling therapy is based on social learning theory. This theory emphasizes the importance of learning from observing and imitating role models, and learning about rewards and punishments that follow behavior. The technique has been used to eliminate unwanted behaviors, reduce excessive fears, facilitate learning of social behaviors, and many more. Modeling may be used either to strengthen or to weaken previously learned behaviour.
Study by Albert Bandura
The concept of behavioral modeling was most memorably introduced by Albert Bandura in his famous 1961 Bobo doll experiment. In this
study, 72 children from ages three to five were divided into groups to watch an adult confederate interact with an assortment of toys in the experiment room, including an inflated Bobo doll. For children assigned the non-aggressive condition, the confederate ignored the doll. For children assigned the aggressive condition, the confederate spent the majority of the time physically aggressing the doll and shouting at it.
After the confederate left the room, the children were given the opportunity to individually interact with similar toys. Children who observed the non-aggressive confederate's behavior played quietly with the toys and rarely initiated violence toward the Bobo doll. Children who watched the aggressive confederate were more likely to imitate the confederate's behavior by hitting, kicking, and shouting at the Bobo doll.
Factors influencing behavioral modeling
Bandura proposed that four components contribute to behavioral
1. Attention: The observer must watch and pay attention the
behavior being modeled.
2. Retention: The observer must remember the behavior well enough
to recreate it.
3. Reproduction: The observer must physically recreate the actions
they observed in step 1.
4. Reinforcement: The observer's modeled behavior must be
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