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AQA A LEVEL PHYSICS EXAM PAPER 3 2020


















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A-level

ure

PHYSICS
Paper 3
Section B Astrophysics

Friday 5 June 2020 Afternoon
Materials
For this paper you must have:
• a pencil and a ruler
• a scientific calculator
• a Data and Formulae Booklet.






Time allowed: The total time for both sections of this paper is 2 hours. You are advised to spend approximately
50 minutes on this section.


Instructions
• Use black ink or black ball-point pen.
• Fill in the boxes at the top of this page.
• Answer all questions.
• You must answer the questions in the spaces provided. Do not write outside the box around each page or on blank
pages.
• If you need extra space for your answer(s), use the lined pages at the end of this book. Write the question number against your answer(s).
• Do all rough work in this book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked.
• Show all your working.
Information
• The marks for questions are shown in brackets.
• The maximum mark for this paper is 35.
• You are expected to use a scientific calculator where appropriate.
• A Data and Formulae Booklet is provided as a loose insert.

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7408/3BA




Section B

Answer all questions in this section.

Do not write outside the box



. 1 Draw a ray diagram for a Cassegrain telescope.
Your diagram should show the paths of two rays up to the
eyepiece lens. The rays should initially be parallel to the
principal axis. [2 marks]






principal
axis







. 2 A spacecraft passes Pluto at a distance of 12 500 km. The telescope on board has an aperture of diameter 0.21 m and operates at a wavelength of 450 nm.

Discuss whether this telescope is suitable for studying a crater with a diameter of approximately 1 km on Pluto.
[3 marks]



























. 3 The Hubble telescope has an aperture of diameter 2.4 m.

Compare the collecting power of the Hubble telescope with the telescope on the spacecraft in Question 01.2.






[2 marks]


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. 4 An astrophysicist had to decide whether to use a reflecting telescope or a refracting telescope on the spacecraft in Question 01.2.


Discuss which type of telescope to use.


[3 marks]
















Turn over ►


Ta ummarises some information about four stars in the constellation


Do not write outside the box

Cassiopeia.

Table 1

Name Colour Apparent magnitude Distance / ly
Caph white 2.3 55
Ruchbah blue/ white 2.7 99
Schedar orange 2.2 228
Tsih blue 2.2 610


. 1 Which star has the highest surface
temperature?
Tick () one box. [1 mark]

Caph


Ruchbah


Schedar


Tsih



0 2 . 2 Figure 1 shows the intensity received at Earth from two of the stars, plotted against wavelength.
The effect of absorption by the Earth’s atmosphere is not shown.

Figure 1


Do not write outside the box





















Discuss what information can be found from Figure 1 about the temperature and colour of these stars.
Support your answer with suitable calculations.




[4 marks]





























Question 2 continues on the next page

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. 3 State which star in Table 1 is dimmest on the absolute


Do not write outside the box

magnitude scale. [1 mark]





. 4 Calculate the absolute magnitude of Schedar.


[3 marks]




















absolute magnitude =


. 5 Tsih has a mass over 15 times the mass of the Sun. Tsih may eventually collapse to form a black hole.

Calculate the radius of the event horizon for a black hole with a mass 15
times that of the Sun.
[2 marks]


















radius = m


Ty supernovae can be used as standard candles.


Do not write outside the box



. 1 State what is meant by a standard candle.


[1 mark]








. 2 Sketch on Figure 2 the light curve for a type 1a supernova. Annotate your graph with suitable scales and a unit for time.




[3 marks]


Figure 2























Question 3 continues on the next page














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. 3 Measurements of type 1a supernovae are used to find a value for the Hubble constant.

The distance from Earth is known for many type 1a supernovae.

Describe how these values of distance are used, with other data, to find the Hubble constant.


Do not write outside the box


Your answer should include:

• the other data needed and how these data are used
• the graph plotted, including appropriate units for the axes
• how the Hubble constant is obtained and any limitations on
the result. [6 marks]


























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IB/M/


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Turn over for the next question





















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IB/M/


Ta ives data about the supergiant star Melnick 34 and the Sun.

Table 2


Do not write outside the box


Name Radius / m Surface temperature / K
Melnick
34 1.4 × 1010 53 000
Sun 7.0 × 108 5 700





Calculate


power output of Melnick
34 .
power output of the Sun




[2 marks]















answer =



. 2 Discuss why the evolution of a supergiant star in the local part of our galaxy could be dangerous for life on Earth.
[2 marks]









END OF QUESTIONS


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Copyright information

For confidentiality purposes, all acknowledgements of third-party copyright material are published in a separate booklet. This booklet is published after each live examination series and is available for free download from www.aqa.org.uk.

Permission to reproduce all copyright material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright-holders may have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements. If you have any queries please contact the Copyright Team.


Copyright © 2020 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved

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