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EXAMINATION QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS IN BASIC ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY MARTIN CAON

Chapter 1
Organisation of the Body
1. Which of the listed terms is described by: “All the chemical processes that take
place in the organelles and cytoplasm the cells of the body”?
A. Metabolism
B. Cellular respiration
2 1 Organisation of the Body
C. Homeostasis
D. Physiology
Answer is A: The quoted statement is a definition of metabolism.
2. Which major organ lies deep to the right hypochondriac region?
A. The stomach
B. The spleen
C. The liver
D. The duodenum
Answer is C: Hypochondriac = below the rib cartilage; liver is located mostly on the
right side.
3. Which plane of the body divides it into dorsal and ventral regions?
A. Transverse
B. Axial
C. Coronal
D. Sagittal
Answer is C: Dorsal and ventral = front and back – a coronal section so divides the
body into these sections.
4. To which of the following doesthe “tissue level” of structural organisation refer?
A. Atoms, ions, molecules and electrolytes
B. Mitochondria, ribosomes, nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum
C. Nephron, alveolus, villus, lobule
D. Muscle, nervous, connective, epithelial
Answer is D: The listed structures are the four major tissue types.
5. The directional term “superior” in anatomy means which of the following?
A. Cephalic
B. Ventral
C. Closer to the top of the head
D. Closer to the skin surface
Answer is C: Cephalic refers to the head region, while superior refers to being
closer to the head than is the other anatomical structure in question.
6. Which of the following is the best definition of physiology?
A. The microscopic study of tissues and cells
B. The study of how the body works
C. All the chemical processes that take place in the organelles of the body’s
cells
D. The body’s automatic tendency to maintain a relatively constant internal
environment
Answer is B: Physiology is indeed the study of how the (healthy) body functions.
1 Organisation of the Body 3
7. The “anatomical position” could be described as which of the following?
A. Lying down prone
B. Lying down supine
C. Standing displaying the ventral surface of the body
D. Standing with arms and legs abducted
Answer is C: This is the best answer. Standing is required, as is having the arms
hanging parallel to the sides, with palms facing forward.
8. Which choice best describes the location of the majority of the musculoskeletal
system?
A. It is in the dorsal cavity
B. It is in the ventral cavity
C. It is in the abdominopelvic cavity
D. It is not located in a body cavity
Answer is D: The musculoskeletal system is located in the arms and legs, and surrounding, but outside of the abdominopelvic, the thoracic and the dorsal cavities.
9. Which of the following is/are the contents of the ventral cavity?
A. Heart and lungs
B. Brain and spinal cord
C. Viscera
D. Gut, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen, bladder, internal reproductive organs
Answer is C: This is the best answer. It is a collective term for all organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
10. Which of the stated relationships is correct?
A. The heart is inferior to the clavicle
B. The shoulder is distal to the carpals
C. The phalanges are proximal to the metacarpals
D. The eye is medial to the eyebrows
Answer is A: The heart is indeed below (inferior) to the clavicle. All other choices
are wrong.
11. Which of the following is/are the contents of the dorsal body cavity?
A. Heart and lungs
B. Brain and spinal cord
C. Viscera
D. Gut, kidneys, liver, pancreas, spleen, bladder, internal reproductive organs
Answer is B: Dorsal refers to the back, the cavity enclosed by the skull and
vertebrae.
4 1 Organisation of the Body
12. Which of the stated relationships is correct?
A. The heart is superior to the large intestine
B. The shoulder is distal to the metacarpals
C. The phalanges are proximal to the carpals
D. The eye is medial to the nose
Answer is A: The heart is indeed above (superior) to the intestine. All other answers
are wrong.
13. What is the study of how body parts function called?
A. Histology
B. Physiology
C. Homeostasis
D. Metabolism
Answer is B: Physiology refers to function.
14. Which of the following correctly describes the two named body parts?
A. The elbow is proximal to the shoulder
B. The phalanges are distal to the carpals
C. The ribs are proximal to the sternum
D. The elbow is distal to the knee
Answer is B: Phalanges (finger bones) are indeed further from the trunk along the
arm, than are the carpals (wrist bones).
15. Which one of the following statements is correct?
A. The diaphragm separates the brain and spinal cord.
B. The ventral cavity contains the male and female reproductive system.
C. The abdominopelvic cavity contains the spinal cord.
D. The dorsal cavity contains the brain and spinal cord.
Answer is D: Dorsal means back and that is the cavity with the spinal cord and
brain. B is incorrect as the genitalia are outside the ventral cavity.
16. Complete the sentence correctly: “Cervical vertebrae are…

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