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ATPL Meteorology Notes 2022 (All Answers are Correct)

Meteorology
How does the height of the tropopause normally vary with latitude in the
northern hemisphere?
It decreases from south to north.
What approximately, is the average height of the tropopause over the
equator?
16km.
In which layer is most of the atmospheric humidity concentrated?
Troposphere.
At FL 180, the air temperature is –35ºc. The air density at this level is:
Greater than the density of the ISA atmosphere at FL 180.
The lowest assumed temperature in the International Standard
Atmosphere (ISA) is:
-56.5ºc.
Under what condition does pressure altitude have the same value as
density altitude?
At standard temperature.
In the troposphere the decrease of pressure per 100m increase in height:
Is smaller at higher levels than at lower levels.
A 200 hPa pressure altitude level can vary in height. In temperate regions
which of the following average heights is applicable?
FL 390.
What is the approximate vertical interval which is equal to a pressure
change of 1 hPa at an altitude of 5500m?
15m (50FT).
In order to calculate QFE from QNH, which of the following must be
known:
Elevation of the airfield.
Several physical processes contribute to atmospheric warming. Which of
the following contribute the most?
Convection and condensation.
What is the dry adiabatic lapse rate per 1000FT?
3.0ºC.
A layer is conditionally unstable if the air:
Is unstable for saturated air and stable for dry air.
A parcel of unsaturated air is lifted to just below the condensation level
and then returned to its original level. What is the final temperature of
the parcel of air?
The same as the starting temperature.
What is the effect of a strong low-level inversion?
It promotes vertical windshear.
The temperature at FL140 is –12ºC. What will the temperature be at FL
110 if the ICAO standard lapse rate is applied?
-6ºC.
If atmospheric conditions exist such that the temperature deviation is
ISA +10 ºC in the lower troposphere up to 18000ft, what is the actual
layer thickness between FL 60 and FL 120?
6240ft.
Which of the following is a common cause of ground or surface
temperature inversion?
Terrestrial radiation on a clear night with no or very light winds.
At a certain position, the temperature on the 300 hPa chart is –48 ºC;
according to the tropopause chart, the tropopause is at FL 330. What is
the most likely temperature at FL 350?
-54 ºC.
What is the meaning of the abbreviation ‘BKN’?
5 – 7 oktas.
When is the RVR reported at most airports?
When the meteorological visibility decreases below 1500m.
How is the direction and speed of upper winds described in forecasts?
The direction is relative to true north and the speed is in knots.
What positions are connected with contour lines on the weather chart?
Positions with the same height in a chart of constant pressure.
In which meteorological forecast chart is information about CAT regions
found?
Significant weather chart.
On which of the following aviation weather charts can a pilot most easily
find a jetstream?
Significant weather chart.
How may the correct wind speed be found, for a level, which is between
two upper air chart levels? (e.g. wind at FL 250, when the 500 hPa and the
300 hPa charts are available).
By interpolation of the wind information available from the two charts.
Why are indications about the height of the tropopause not essential for
flight documentation in the tropics?
The tropopause is generally well above the flight level actually flown.
In the TAF for Delhi, during the summer, for the time of your landing
you. Note: TEMPO TS. What is the maximum time this deterioration in
weather can last in any one instance?
60 minutes.
How are well separated CB clouds described on the significant weather
chart?
OCNL CB.
Which one of the following statements applies to the tropopause?
It separates the troposphere from the stratosphere.
The 0º isotherm is forecast to be at FL 50. At what FL would you expect
a temperature of –6 ºC?
FL 80.
What positions are connected by isobars on the surface weather chart?
Positions in the same air pressure at a given level.
In vertical spacing of 1000ft, is the standard required separation
between two FL. Under conditions of cold air advection (ISA –15 ºC),
what would the true vertical separation be?
Less than a 1000ft.
At which pressure and temperature conditions may you safely assume
that the minimum usable flight level at least lies at the same height, as
the minimum safe altitude?
At a temperature greater than or equal to that of the ISA where the
QNH is greater than or equal to 1013 hPa.
What is the main cause for the formation of a polar front jetstream?
The north-south horizontal temperature gradient at the polar front.
Which jetstream is connected with a surface front system?
The polar front jetstream.
At approximately what altitude is the subtropical jetstream found over
Europe?
FL 400.
A parcel of moist but not saturated air rises due to adiabatic effects.
Which of the following changes?
Relative humidity.
In which of the following changes of state is latent heat released?
Gas to liquid.
In which of the following regions does polar maritime air originate?
East of Greenland
In which of the following situations can freezing rain be encountered?
Ahead of a warm front in the winter.
How do air masses move at a warm front?
Warm air overrides a cold air mass.
What type of precipitation would you expect at an active unstable cold
front?
Showers associated with thunderstorms.
What is the relative movement of the two airmasses along a cold front?
Cold air pushes under a warm air mass.
What cloud cover is typical for a wide warm sector of a polar front
depression of central Europe in the summer?
Fair weather CU.
Which of the following describe a warm occlusion?
The coldest air mass is ahead of the original warm front.
When do cold occlusions occur most frequently in Europe?
Summer.
In which main direction does a polar front depression move?
Along the front towards the East.
How are high level condensation trails formed that are to be found
occasionally behind jet aircraft?
Through water vapour released during fuel combustion.
What process in an air mass leads to the creation of widespread NS, AS
and ST cloud coverage

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