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A essay format answer regarding the psychology perspectives in education,the document includes the following perspectives:
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY REVISION: (SESSION 04)
DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN PERSPECTIVES IN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY
Behavioral psychologists in the educational field theorize that learning occurs when the student or child is reinforced in their behavior and class work. The behavioral perspective is mainly shaped by associations.
Associations is a form of learning known as empiricism in which an individual learns through experiences only senses ; for example an individual who places his hand in fire would feel the sensation of heat and thus learn that fire is hot and shouldn’t be touched. The individual would associate the pain with the fire and thus learn to stay away. Association was first brought about by Aristotle in 284-322 B.C who claimed that learning through experience is the sole true method of learning.
However much later, in 1890, Pavlov introduced classical conditioning, in which he managed to condition some dogs to salivate by the ring of a bell. He did this by pairing the bell (neutral stimulus )with the food (conditioned stimulus) , by presenting the food after ringing the bell in several sessions, the dogs became conditioned to salivate by just presenting the now conditioned stimulus , the bell.
Behavioral psychologists think that humans can also be conditioned into behavior as such, children can be conditioned into appropriate behavior such as completing class and homework
Operant conditioning proposed by BF skinner, viewed conditioning in terms of reinforcement. . There are four types of conditioning; positive reinforcement is when the behavior is reinforced by presenting a pleasant stimulus such as a reward. Negative reinforcement is when the behavior is strengthened by removing an unpleasant stimulus. Positive punishment is when behavior is paired with an unpleasant stimulus to reduce the behavior and negative punishment is decreasing the behavior occurring by removing a pleasant stimulus.
Theorists believe that this would help encourage and optimize a student’s education in class and at home when used in the educational field. One such method is the token economy method in which students would gain tokens for accomplishing certain goals in school, these tokens can be used for rewards.
However, some criticize that the behavioral perspective does not aid any view into how people have advanced cognitive skills, especially if individuals only learn through association.
Adding that the behavior can go extinct, which means that the behavior is no longer displayed, this happens in operant conditioning when the reinforcer is no longer provided following the behavior and in classical conditioning the behavior can become extinct when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimuli, Pavlov discovered that when he presented the bell without the food repeatedly, the dogs stopped salivating.
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